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June 2013

Cyber Command Redefines the Art

June 1, 2013
By Robert K. Ackerman

The U.S. Cyber Command is developing a strategy that acknowledges the convergence of network systems by empowering a similar convergence of military disciplines to help place U.S. cyberspace operators on a level field with their malevolent counterparts. This strategy acknowledges that the structure of the cyberforce has not kept pace with technology developments. As all types of information management—networking, communications and data storage—became digitized, previously disparate disciplines assumed greater commonality. With more common aspects, these disciplines share similar vulnerabilities as well as potential solutions.

The Biggest Threat Today

June 1, 2013
By Kent R. Schneider

U.S. Director of National Intelligence Lt. Gen. James R. Clapper, USAF (Ret.), recently testified in Congress that cyber attacks have become the greatest single threat facing the United States. He went on to say the threat is particularly acute for the nation’s critical infrastructure and reminded Congress that the majority of critical infrastructure in the United States is privately owned.

The European Union Internal Security Plan, written in 2011 and updated annually, makes the same assertion: cyber security has become the greatest vulnerability for the European Union and its member nations.

Cybersecurity has become so important because the range of threats includes recreational hackers, hacktivists, cyber criminals, terrorists, and state or state-sponsored actors. The targets include government networks, systems, applications and data as well as those of industry and private citizens. At the same time, the tools available to bad actors are diverse, sophisticated and inexpensive or free—and easy to obtain on the Internet.

If you have not visited a cyber laboratory recently, I encourage you to do so. Should you have doubted the seriousness of the threat, such a visit will make a believer of you. Many of AFCEA’s member companies have good laboratories; the iCollege at the National Defense University has a great set of laboratories specific to various types of systems; and the National Police Academy in Prague, Czech Republic, has done some amazing work in computer forensics that will open your eyes. In addition, the NATO Cyber Center of Excellence in Tallinn, Estonia, was developed to support a multinational approach to cybersecurity.

Informal, Self-Organizing, Ad Hoc
 Relational Networks Are the New Multipliers

June 1, 2013
By Lt. Ben Kohlmann, USN

The advent of social networks is transforming the way the military does business. Net-centric warfare once was in vogue, seeking to capture electrons and raw fiber to transform the way combat was fought. Yet an even more powerful and unanticipated net is making waves in remarkable ways. It is the power of relational networks, fostered by loose ties and catalyzed by the proliferation of quickly evolving online platforms.

These networks of individuals are as far removed from centralized chains of command as anyone can be. They span ranks, ages, services and communities. As with water running down a rocky mountain, they find a way to interact and build each other’s knowledge base no matter the formal obstacles laid down by bureaucracy.

The power of these relationships was made very real to me last year when I joined Twitter. Randomly following military-related users, I soon became engaged in deeply strategic conversations with people I never would have found on my own. Senior Army officers were engaging informally with enlisted sailors and deployed Air Force pilots, sparring and parrying with a flurry of articles, links and philosophical references. Nobody told these folks to work together—they simply assembled on their own.

It became apparent that not only were these self-organizing and ever-evolving groups of people learning about warfare in a totally new way, they were becoming friends. Service members continents apart from each other, never having met, now had groups of peers and friends to have a beer with while on temporary assigned duty or leave. Their virtual conversations turned into very real, face-to-face interactions.

Cybersecurity--
Everybody's Doing It

June 1, 2013
By George I. Seffers

With attacks on critical data increasing in numbers, intensity and sophistication, securing networks is becoming a global effort while fostering greater information sharing among agencies, governments and the public and private sectors. The future of cybersecurity offers greater opportunities for industry and greater cooperation on national security and critical infrastructure protection, say executives at some of the largest U.S. defense companies.

Command’s Cybersecurity
 Crosses Domains, Directorates

June 1, 2013
By Rita Boland

The U.S. Transportation Command has taken a novel approach to its Joint Cyber Center, reflecting the unusual needs of this organization that plays a role across U.S. military operations. Officials have found their decisions, such as uniting disparate experts in a single physical location, help save resources while increasing cooperation with the many industry partners that have integral roles in the efforts to keep supplies and people moving.

Joint Aerial Layer Network Vision Moves Toward Reality

June 1, 2013
By George I. Seffers

The concept connects disparate networks to provide greater information to warfighters.

U.S. military officials envision one day being able to network together virtually all airborne assets, providing data to warfighters in the air, on the ground and at sea, even under the most harsh conditions. Major milestones in the coming months and years will bring that concept closer to a fielded capability.

The Joint Aerial Layer Network (JALN) is not an actual program. “It is a conglomeration of a number of different programs. It is absolutely a vision of how we’re going to transport information across many domains—air, space, terrestrial and subsurface—and across many different environments—an environment that is totally permissive; an environment that is contested; and an environment that is anti-access and actively denied to us,” explains Col. Anthony Genatempo, USAF, senior material leader for the Space, Aerial and Nuclear Networks Division, Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts. “The Joint Aerial Layer Network is a vision for pulling together lots of different existing networks and being able to route and transport required information to a much wider array of users.” For example, it would disseminate data from Link 16, a network primarily for fighter aircraft, or information gathered by drones, which currently is largely restricted to intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance networks.

Cyber Train as You Fight

June 1, 2013
By Max Cacas

The U.S. Army is making its facility at West Point the focus of a joint program with the other services, industry and academia, devoted to sharing advanced cybertraining and research. Training in the new cyber realm includes not only basic best practices concerning passwords and mobile device security but also advanced training in the latest network management protocols and technology for members of the Army’s Signal Corps.

Critical Infrastructure Ripe for Attack

June 1, 2013
By Robert K. Ackerman

Digital marauders have set their sights on the critical infrastructure and are likely to strike soon with major effect. Several different elements of the infrastructure are vulnerable to attack by all manner of cyberspace players ranging from malevolent individuals to hostile nation-states.

Razor Talon Sharpens Services’ Synergy

June 1, 2013
By Rita Boland

Integrating air land, and sea forces on a monthly basis saves money and creates continuity of operations.

Technology experts at the U.S. Air Force’s 4th Fighter Wing based at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina, are networking joint units up and down the East Coast to provide unique training opportunities for the modern military. Through their efforts, advancements are being made to further the Air-Sea Battle Concept, simultaneously improving coalition interoperability. The events allow for interservice and international training without strain on organizations’ budgets.

These Razor Talon exercises are monthly large-force exercises that have grown significantly since their first iteration in March 2011. They evolved in part from an inability of units, because of timing or funding, always to send their assets to the major exercise of that type—Red Flag at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada. “We needed a large-force exercise to essentially grow mission commanders,” explains Col. Michael Koscheski, USAF, 4th Operations Group commander. Though units from the East Coast can receive world-class training by attending annual, large-scale events, the home station training offered through Razor Talon ensures they can keep up-to-date. Sometimes units miss out for years on attending other exercises because of costs or mission schedules. Razor Talon planners lay out the yearly schedule for their monthly events, and groups see when they are available to participate based on their operations.

Air Force Strikes at New
 Information Challenges

June 1, 2013
By Robert K. Ackerman

Costs, security and operations requirements share top billing on priority list.

The U.S. Air Force is looking to overhaul its networking capabilities to meet new taskings in the post-Southwest-Asia era. Limited resources are changing the way the Air Force moves information throughout the battlespace, so the service must confront its challenges through innovative approaches and cooperative efforts.

The Air Force has to determine which networking issues have organic solutions and which problems must be solved by others—government, other military organizations or even the private sector. It must make those determinations without knowing if it will have the funding to tap outside resources that could meet its needs. And, these issues have to be addressed as cyber and coalition interoperability assume greater emphasis in both planning and operations.

Lt. Gen. Michael J. Basla, USAF, chief of information dominance and chief information officer (CIO)/A-6, U.S. Air Force, is in charge of ensuring Air Force networks effectively support the service as well as the joint and coalition communities. His top concerns are built around space superiority; intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR); rapid global mobility; global strike; and command and control.

Gen. Basla relates that, in a discussion with Defense Department officials, he suggested that investments in cyber and information technologies can offset costs in other areas. A nonkinetic effect might be less expensive than a kinetic effect and still achieve an operational objective. But even that option for efficiency faces hurdles, budgetary concerns among them.

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