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GPS vulnerabilities are well understood and there are ways to mitigate these vulnerabilities. Bringing LORAN back to life is not the answer. First, there are no free lunches. For many applications, directional antenna technology holds great promise to negate jamming. Second, timing technology is now at a level where direct precise signal acquisition can be the new procedure rather than a CA handover. Initeral technology and geoid modeling have reached a point where autonomous accurate navigation is feasible for long periods of time. Further, our communications architectures also enable PVT. The trick is integration, integration, integration.... In terms of ASAT threats, this integration will be our backup, and it is important to understand that when a conflict begins in space and/or space becomes one of the battlefields we are no longer dealing with asymetric or third world threats it is now a full dimensional and we will be fighting for our survival and very possibly the the conflict will result in the unspeakable, nuclear exchange(s). It is in this last context, that I continue to advocate integration, integration, integration.