Thank you for this nice summary of our work at NIST! As one of the researchers involved in this work, I can elaborate on the article's final paragraph. One possible use of a quantum random number generator like ours is to transform a source of public randomness (for example the NIST Randomness Beacon) into a source of private randomness (for example that you might use to choose a password). While each pair of photons is flying from their source to the two measurement stations, each measurement station can use public randomness to choose one of two possible angles along which to measure its photon's polarization. We assume that the public random source is independent of anyone trying to predict the experiment's random output. If the experimental devices are secure in the laboratory when the public random numbers are announced and the measurements show quantum correlations, then the output data is privately random. Surprisingly, this is true even if an adversary manufactured the experimental devices!
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