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Mention was made of the environment affecting HF radio and SATCOMs; however, no mention was made of what happens when the signals environment is taken out by nuclear weapons causing huge EMPs (electro-magnetic pulses) that will rapidly bugger-up transistors and the computers / equipment that they are in. The Russians were known to have developed work-rounds in the 1970s: how we sniggered when we found that, thanks to embargos, the Soviet Union could not develop decent transistors and modern communications devices but we laughed on the other side of our faces when we realised what their miniature valves could do and how robust they were against EMPs. I can only imagine how much their valve technology has advanced while ours has stagnated because no-one is looking at what happens if a war goes nuclear.

Toin