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All of these 3 projects seem viable and they certainly fill a need. There will inevitably be some attack or disaster which wipes out communications. I experienced the 2011 electrical outage in San Diego county (3 million affected). It lasted approximately from 4pm to 4am. It was due to a bad software update. Communications were totally out - no TV, no radio, no phones (although I think landlines were working). What worked for us was a hand cranked emergency radio. The only station we could pick up was a Talk Radio station....which gradually put the picture together that the whole county was in a power outage. It was a total mess. It took one of my son's friends 3 hours just to get out of his parking structure. It was total gridlock. It wasn't until 8pm that the Mayor made an announcement over the Talk Radio station.

The 3 solutions above would have helped in our situation. There are some other considerations that should be kept in mind. Let's say the AERPAW is set up for cellphone communication. In the event of a power outage, the cellphone batteries are going to run down and AERPAW isn't going to be too effective after 24 hours. So you need to think about a survival electric power system as well. Let's say that a back-up electrical grid was connected to all Fire Stations. People could at least go there to recharge their batteries (obviously some sort of priority system would have to be instituted).

The same sort of thing has to be considered for COSMOS and POWDER. You are going to need survivable power for those radios.

In the case of our experience in San Diego, I think the only power that was available was from back-up generators at hospitals. Some people had back-up generators. Some people ran their car engines to just play their radio for information. This illustrates the potential of using cars as a back-up power system for communications. By siphoning fuel from most cars in a neighborhood, you would probably be able to run a car radio in one cars for days.

I think we need to be thinking beyond communications to a survivable communications/electrical system.