Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have launched a project called Beyond Moore Computing to discover the future of computing. Possibilities include next-generation supercomputers, systems that learn autonomously and machines that require less energy. The plateauing of Moore’s Law is causing an increase in energy costs for modern scientific computers that eventually will make supercomputers impractical because of enormous energy consumption. New computer architectures are required to solve the problem. A major focus will be on the transistor level. Experts at Sandia foresee multiple computing device-level technologies rather than one dominant architecture. To be viable, all solutions must have commercial applications.